BATH

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thành phố of Bath

Founded by the Romans as a thermal spa, Bath became an important centre of the wool industry in the Middle Ages. In the 18th century, under George III, it developed into an elegant town with neoclassical Palladian buildings, which blend harmoniously with the Roman baths.

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Ville de Bath

Station thermale fondée par les Romains, Bath a été un centre important de l"industrie lainière au Moyen Âge. Au XVIIIe siècle, sous George III, elle est devenue une ville élégante aux bâtiments néoclassiques inspirés par Palladio qui ont harmonieusement entouré le complexe thermal romain.

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مدينة باث

شكل هذا الحمام المعدني الذي انشأه الرومان مركزاً هاماً لصناعة الصوف في القرون الوسطى، ثم تحول في القرن الثامن عشر في عهد جورج الثالث الى مدينة أنيقة بأبنيتها ذات الطراز النيوكلاسيكي المستوحى من بالاديو لتحيط بتناغم بالمجمّع المعدني الحار الروماني.

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巴斯城

巴斯城最开始是罗马人的温泉城,在中世纪变成了重要的毛纺织工业中心。在18世纪,乔治三世统治时期,吸取了帕拉第奥建筑风格的灵感而把巴斯城建成为新式和古典式建筑物融合统一的优美城市。

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Город Бат

Основанный древними римлянами как термальный курорт, город Бат в средневековье стал важным центром производства шерстяных тканей. В XVIII в., в период правления Георга III, Бат начал превращаться в элегантный город со зданиями в стиле классицизма Палладио, которые гармонично сочетались с древнеримскими термами.

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Ciudad de Bath

Fundada por los romanos junto a unas fuentes termales, la ciudad de Bath llegó a ser un centro importante de la industria lanera en la Edad Media. En el siglo XVIII, durante el reinado de Jorge III, se transformó en una elegante ciudad con edificios neoclásicos de estilo palladiano que se integran armónicamente bé el conjunto formado por las termas romanas.

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バース市街イングランド南西部の、ローマ時代に浴場や神殿が建設された温泉保養地。18世紀には上流階級の社交場として利用され、今はジョージ王朝風の町並みとともに保存されている。19世紀以降に大浴場跡の本格的な発掘が行われた。英語で風呂のことを「バス」というが、この地名がその語源である。

source: NFUAJ


Bath

Bath werd gesticht door de Romeinen als kuuroord. Tijdens de middeleeuwen werd de plaats een belangrijk centrum van de wolindustrie. In de 18e eeuw ontwikkelde het zich onder George III tot een elegante stad met neoklassieke Palladiaanse gebouwen, die een harmonieuze combinatie vormden met de Romeinse baden. De kwaliteit van de architectuur en stedenbouw van Bath - gekenmerkt door visuele homogeniteit en schoonheid - bewijzen de vaardigheid en creativiteit van de 18e- en 19e-eeuwse architecten en visionairs. Dit werd in de hand gewerkt door de specifieke mogelijkheden, het fysieke milieu en de natuurlijke hulpbronnen van het kuuroord.

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Roman Baths © Bath Tourism Plus

Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The thành phố of Bath in South West England was founded in the 1st century AD by the Romans who used the natural hot springs as a thermal spa. It became an important centre for the wool industry in the Middle Ages but in the 18th century under the reigns of George l, ll and III it developed into an elegant spa làm đẹp city, famed in literature và art.

The đô thị of Bath is of Outstanding Universal Value for the following cultural attributes: The Roman remains, especially the Temple of Sulis Minerva & the baths complex (based around the hot springs at the heart of the Roman town of Aquae Sulis, which have remained at the heart of the City’s development ever since) are amongst the most famous & important Roman remains north of the Alps, & marked the beginning of Bath’s history as a spa town.

The Georgian đô thị reflects the ambitions of John Wood Senior (1704-1754), Ralph Allen (1693-1764) và Richard “Beau” Nash (1674-1761) to make Bath into one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, with architecture & landscape combined harmoniously for the enjoyment of the spa town’s cure takers.

The Neo-classical style of the public buildings (such as the Assembly Rooms & the Pump Room) harmonises with the grandiose proportions of the monumental ensembles (such as Queen Square, Circus and Royal Crescent) and collectively reflects the ambitions, particularly social, of the spa làm đẹp city in the 18th century.

The individual Georgian buildings reflect the profound influence of Palladio (1508-1580) and their collective scale, style và the organisation of the spaces between buildings epitomises the success of architects such as the John Woods (elder 1704-1754, younger 1728-1782), Robert Adam (1728-1792), Thomas Baldwin (1750-1820) and John Palmer (1738-1817) in transposing Palladio’s ideas khổng lồ the scale of a complete city, situated in a hollow in the hills & built to a picturesque landscape aestheticism creating a strong garden đô thị feel, more akin to the 19th century garden cities than the 17th century Renaissance cities.

Criterion (i): Bath’s grandiose Neo-classical Palladian crescents, terraces & squares spread out over the surrounding hills & set in its green valley, are a demonstration par excellence of the integration of architecture, urban design và landscape setting, and the deliberate creation of a beautiful city. Not only are individual buildings such as the Assembly Rooms & Pump Room of great distinction, they are part of the larger overall thành phố landscape that evolved over a century in a harmonious & logical way, drawing together public & private buildings và spaces in a way that reflects the precepts of Palladio tempered with picturesque aestheticism.

Bath’s quality of architecture và urban design, its visual homogeneity & its beauty is largely testament lớn the skill & creativity of the architects & visionaries of the 18th and 19th centuries who applied & developed Palladianism in response to lớn the specific opportunities offered by the spa làm đẹp town và its physical environment and natural resources (in particular the hot springs và the local Bath Oolitic limestone). Three men – architect John Wood Senior, entrepreneur và quarry owner Ralph Allen và celebrated social shaper & Master of Ceremonies Richard “Beau” Nash – together provided the impetus khổng lồ start this social, economic và physical rebirth, resulting in a thành phố that played host khổng lồ the social, political & cultural leaders of the day. That the architects who followed were working over the course of a century, with no master plan or single patron, did not prevent them from contriving khổng lồ relate each individual development khổng lồ those around it & to the wider landscape, creating a city that is harmonious and logical, in concord with its natural environment and extremely beautiful.

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Criterion (ii): Bath exemplifies the 18th century move away from the inward-looking uniform street layouts of Renaissance cities that dominated through the 15th–17th centuries, towards the idea of planting buildings and cities in the landscape to achieve picturesque views và forms, which could be seen echoed around Europe particularly in the 19th century. This unifying of nature and city, seen throughout Bath, is perhaps best demonstrated in the Royal Crescent (John Wood Younger) & Lansdown Crescent (John Palmer). Bath’s urban & landscape spaces are created by the buildings that enclose them, providing a series of interlinked spaces that flow organically, and that visually (and at times physically) draw in the green surrounding countryside lớn create a distinctive garden city feel, looking forward to lớn the principles of garden cities developed by the 19th century town planners.

Criterion (iv): Bath reflects two great eras in human history: Roman & Georgian. The Roman Baths and temple complex, together with the remains of the city of Aquae Sulis that grew up around them, make a significant contribution khổng lồ the understanding và appreciation of Roman social & religious society. The 18th century re-development is a quality combination of outstanding urban architecture, spatial arrangement & social history. Bath exemplifies the main themes of the 18th century neoclassical city; the monumentalisation of ordinary houses, the integration of landscape & town, và the creation & interlinking of urban spaces, designed & developed as a response khổng lồ the growing popularity of Bath as a society and spa chăm sóc sức khỏe và làm đẹp destination & to provide an appropriate picturesque setting và facilities for the cure takers and social visitors. Although Bath gained greatest importance in Roman & Georgian times, the thành phố nevertheless reflects continuous development over two millennia with the spectacular medieval Abbey Church sat beside the Roman temple & baths, in the heart of the 18th century and modern day city.

Integrity

Remains of the known Roman baths, the Temple of Sulis Minerva & the below grounds Roman archaeology are well preserved và within the property boundary as are the areas of Georgian town planning & architecture, và large elements of the landscape within which the thành phố is set. Despite some loss of Georgian buildings prior to lớn inscription, the Georgian city remains largely intact both in terms of buildings & plan form. An extensive range of interlinked spaces formed by crescents, terraces & squares set in a harmonious relationship with the surrounding green landscape survive. The relationship of the Georgian city to its setting of the surrounding hills remains clearly visible. As a modern city, Bath remains vulnerable to lớn large-scale development and to transport pressures, both within the site & in its setting that could impact adversely on its garden city feel & on views across the property and to its green setting.

Authenticity

The hot springs, which are the reason for the City’s original development, are of undoubted authenticity. The key Roman remains are preserved, protected & displayed within a museum environment, và the Roman Baths can still be appreciated for their original use. The majority of the large stock of Georgian buildings have been continuously inhabited since their construction, and retain a high degree of original fabric. Repairs have largely been sympathetic, informed by an extensive toàn thân of documentation, and aided by a programme of restoration in the late twentieth century. More vulnerable is the overall interaction between groups of buildings in terraces, crescents và squares and views to lớn the surrounding landscape that contributed lớn the City’s visual harmony. There is a need for new developments to lớn respect the planning of the Georgian terraces, to respect the scale và rhythm of its structures, & to contribute to picturesque views.

Protection và management requirements

The UK Government protects World Heritage properties in England in two ways. Firstly, individual buildings, monuments and landscapes are designated under the Planning (Listed Buildings và Conservation Areas) Act 1990 & the 1979 Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act, & secondly through the UK Spatial Planning system under the provisions of the Town and Country Planning Acts.

Government guidance on protecting the Historic Environment và World Heritage is set out in National Planning Policy Framework và Circular 07/09. Policies to lớn protect, promote, conserve & enhance World Heritage properties, their settings and buffer zones are also found in statutory planning documents.

The Bath và North East Somerset Local Plan contains a chip core policy according to lớn which the development which would harm the qualities justifying the inscription of the World Heritage property, or its setting, will not be permitted. The protection of the surrounding landscape of the property has been strengthened by adoption of a Supplementary Planning Document, & negotiations are progressing with regard to lớn transferring the management of key areas of land from the Bath và North East Somerset Council to the National Trust.

The đô thị of Bath World Heritage Site Steering Group was established as a non-executive committee consisting of representatives from 14 organisations with interest in the site. It has an independent chairperson. Members represent national government, Bath & North East Somerset Council elected members và officers, surrounding Parish Councils, heritage bodies, & the thành phố business group, resident’s associations, both universities and the tourism company.

The Steering Group oversees the production and implementation of the World Heritage Site Management Plan. This plan aims khổng lồ address the key tensions between development và conservation of the city-wide property.

The main pressures currently facing the site are large-scale development và the need for improved transport. The need for development to lớn be based on an understanding of the distinctiveness & Outstanding Universal Value of the Georgian đô thị continues lớn be guided by the policy framework listed above. A hamibeauty.vn/ICOMOS Mission assessed the development at Bath Western Riverside in 2008 and concluded that the Outstanding Universal Value and Integrity would not be adversely impacted by the phase one development. Subsequent phases are planned but not yet timetabled.

Transport improvements are based principally around a bus-based network and pedestrianisation, as outlined in the Management Plan.

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Tourism is managed by Bath Tourism Plus, an independent company. The Destination Management Plan has been updated by a ‘Destination marketing Strategy’ for Bath, which aims khổng lồ promote growth in value of tourism rather than in volume.